ISSN 1556-6757







Volume 1, Issue 2, 2007


The Status of Yield Management in Service Organizations in the United Arab Emirates: Results of a Survey      Darwish Abdulrahman Yousef


This paper investigates the awareness , self-reported current usage of yield management (YM), as a new technology, in a number of service organizations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), perceived usefulness of using yield management and to explore to what extent the conditions necessary for the adoption of YM exist in non-users organizations. A sample of 77 individuals from hotels, airlines, and restaurants in the emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al-Khaimah, and the city of Al-Ain was used. The results show that the majority of respondents are aware of YM and use it at least moderately. The sources of acquiring knowledge in YM for those who are aware of YM were as follows: practice, training, and reading books and journals. The results also show that respondents perceive that the use of YM influences efficiency, sales, profitability; improves productivity, competitive advantage, capacity utilization and reduces costs. Results also show that about 53 percent of the users have been using YM for five years or more and that the conditions required for the adoption of YM exist to some extent for most of the non-users organizations. Limitations, implications, and lines of future research are discussed. Full Article


Rural Female Entrepreneurs: A Demographic Survey in Rural Pennsylvania
Dean Frear


Female business ownership is an important segment of business. Rural female entrepreneurs are an integral part of this sector. Research is lacking regarding the demographic characteristics of rural female entrepreneurs. Typical issues analyzed in the literature include gender, personal characteristics such as education, experience, age, marital status, children, motivation, founding strategies, initial capital, investment process, networks, inhibiting reasons, international, and public policy issues. This research developed a demographic profile revealing characteristics of the rural female entrepreneur. Full Article


Research on the Purchase Behavior of Customer-to-Customer Online Auction
Ruey-Shin Chen, Chung-Ching Chiu,Jaw-Ching Chiang, Chih-Hung Tsai


Many Customer-to-Customer (C2C) online auction providers still do not have a good understanding of Customer-to-Customer trade in Taiwan. The Customer-to-Customer online auction providers still do not have a good understanding of Customer-to-Customer trade behavior and are unable to provide satisfied and effective outcomes for an online auction trade. It is difficult to propose a standard trade strategy without a basic understanding of current trade capacity and of the critical gaps in customer’s tradeevaluation. The purpose of this survey article is to address these behaviors in the literature and to provide an overview of the current state

in Taiwan. Using qualitative data collected from customers, this study provides insight into what can be done to build effective Customer-to-Customer online auction trade in Taiwan.

Keywords: Online Auction, Trust, Decision-Making, Web-based Auction Full Artiicle


Flexibility in the workplace: What happens to commitment? 
Vlasios Sarantinos


Flexibility is one the most highly appreciated norms of today's workplace. Amongst the

push for broadening this trend in the employment relationship, an important question that arises is the effects it can have on employees’ perception and how it can affect their commitment to the

organization. This paper examines the issue of employment flexibility and the various forms it

takes in the working environment. Equally, there is an attempt to ascertain how people in the

workforce perceive the call for flexibility and how this affects their commitment levels towards

organizations. Full Article


Leadership Practices: A Comparison Between Chile And The United States
Leopoldo Arias-Bolzmann, Stanley J. Stough, Chellappan Somarajan, Leonardo Garcia-Polo

Leadership is a key element in the successful execution of any strategic plan. It is important to

recognize differing perceptions concerning performance of leadership practices across cultures. This study compares leadership practices between the USA and Chile, using the LPI-Self questionnaire developed by Kouzes & Posner (1993) as the instrument for data collection. The results of the study show that significant differences do exist among MBA respondents in the respective countries with Chilean respondents scoring higher than USA respondents on all practice dimensions. The results are of value in understanding how leadership differences impact strategic execution within an organization. Full Article


Dimensions of Industrial Location Factors: Review and Exploration

Masood A. Badri

Industrial location is an increasingly important decision facing both national and international firms. Given that no operational measures of the critical factors affecting a firm's industrial location decision exist, this paper develops an instrument for the critical factors. The developed instrument, consisting of 14 dimensions, passed through a stringent empirical validation test, and is based on extensive literature search and psychometric principles. A total of 95 items were retained for the instrument. The main objective of the paper is to describe the methodology used in the development process. The paper provides a detailed presentation of how content and construct validity are assured. The process of identifying the fourteen critical factors utilized judgments by the authors and a group of industrial location professionals. A total of 2125 executives of industrial firms from all over the world participated in the study (23 countries). The general critical factors of industrial location are transportation, labor, raw materials, markets, industrial sites, utilities, government attitude, tax structure, climate, and community. In addition, for international location considerations, four general factors are identified: political situation of foreign countries, global competition and survival, government regulations, and economic factors. Full Article

Optimal Quarterly Sales Targets for a Mobile Phone Company with Exogenous Yearly Targets
Nasreddine Saadouli

This paper considers the problem of determining short-term (quarterly) sales targets for a regional division given yearly quotas exogenously imposed by the corporate parent’s headquarters. In an increasingly complex and dynamic economic environment, this problem arises in the attempt to balance the global factors such as corporate budgets, supply and aggregate demand with the division’s shorter term issues and the regional market’s specific characteristics and attributes. The problem is modeled as a linear program to determine the optimal quarterly allocation of a range of products to maximize the revenue while satisfying

the yearly quotas and the short term demand constraints for each product in the range. The linear program is solved for a real-life case. The results indicate the existence of such an optimal allocation and provide further insight into the problem for the division’s marketing management. Future research paths which include the combined short-term price-quota determination and the stochastic demand-price instances conclude the exposition.  Full Article


Matching E-tailing Strategies to Customers’ Behavior: Three Levels of Interaction
Bela Florenthal

Although a growing body of research is developing to address the different e-business practices

in the electronic marketplace, e-tailing strategies have only been investigated as part of the study

of general e-business strategies. However, researchers recognize that innovative and unique

modes of e-tailing operations have emerged in recent years. Therefore, this paper introduces an

organizing framework that categorizes the strategies of e-tailers on three levels of interaction:

product, process, and partnership. The framework also addresses the perceptions and

preferences of customers in relation to e-tailing strategies. Based on the proposed framework,

research opportunities and lessons for practitioners are suggested. Full Article


Masculinity Femininity and Automotive Behaviors Emerging Knowledge for Entrepreneurs
Birgit Smart, Amanda Campbell, Barlow Soper, Walter Buboltz, Jr.


Entrepreneurs interested in tapping auto related business opportunities are provided information about how automotive behaviors and the gender roles of masculinity and femininity (expected sex-related behaviors) interrelate. Automotive maintenance activities and use of technical features were surveyed. A MANOVA was conducted with the results indicating that the inspection of air filters and the use of turn signals, seat belts, and overdrive are related to

masculinity/femininity, while other maintenance behaviors and automotive feature usage may not be. Frequencies for performing automotive behaviors were reported for men and women, revealing significant differences. This knowledge may be relevant for auto-related entrepreneurs.
Full Article


Institutions and Development: Are Some More Critical Than Others? A Cross-Section Empirical Analysis of 54 Countries    Bertram C. I. Okpokwasili

Strong institutions are often mentioned as the factors that would lift Africa from under-development. But given the resource constraints of African countries, policy makers would have to prioritize which institution or institutions to commit scarce resources to. An aggregative measure of many institutions would not be very useful for their policy decisions, and some questions would still linger. First, what is the relative importance of one institution to another? Second, do institutions exert equal impact on comprehensive development as they do on

economic growth? The contribution of this paper is in addressing these two issues. We find that in assessing the importance of institutions on development, it makes a difference whether one addresses economic growth or comprehensive development. Using data from 1985 to 2004, for 54 countries, 32 of them from Sub-Sahara Africa, government effectiveness seems to be the institution whose improvement would have the most overall impact. Its impact on growth and

development is strong, but its superiority is in comprehensive development. Full Article

Considering a General Theory of Creativity in Advertising: The Case for a Socio-Cultural Model
Lee Earle


While previous advertising and marketing literature has looked at specific elements

of creativity in marketing communication, in reality creativity is a multi-dimensional

phenomenon. By reviewing articles from other disciplines, this essay will examine

creativity not from the perspective of individual process or potential but rather as an

end product. From this viewpoint, a general theory of creativity will be established

utilizing a socio-cultural model, one that requires interaction between three subsystems:

creator, domain, and field. Full Article


M2 Targeting, Money Demand, and Real GDP Growth in Nigeria: Do Rules Apply?
Oluwole Owoye and Olugbenga A. Onafowora

This paper examines M2 money targeting, the stability of real M2 money demand, and the effects of deviations of actual real M2 growth rates from targets on real GDP growth and inflation rate on the Nigerian economy since the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) in 1986. We employ cointegration vector error correction methodology using quarterly data from 1986:1 to 2001:4. Our results indicate that a long-run relationship exists between the real broad money supply, real GDP, inflation rate, domestic interest rate, foreign interest rate, and expected exchange rate. Furthermore, both the CUSUM and CUSUMSQ tests confirm the stability of the short- and long run parameters of the real money demand function. The stability of the real money demand function supports the choice of M2 as an intermediate target as Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) attempts to manage inflation and stimulate economic activity in Nigeria. Our empirical analysis showed that the CBN was not strongly committed to its annual M2 money growth targets, but more importantly, the deviations from M2 target growth rates impacted real GDP growth rate and inflation rate adversely during the period Full Article

Financial Crises, Panic and Contagion: Evidence from a Cross-Country Comparison Using Two Time Frames   
Cinzia Balit Moussalli

Rapid growth in Asian nations during the period 1994 to 1996 first attracted massive capital

inflows, which were soon followed by a loss of confidence and even greater capital outflows. Most of the countries that operated under a fixed exchange rate system were unable to maintain their peg due to speculative attacks against their currencies, and ultimately lost much of their reserves. While the effect of contagion spread the crisis over a large number of developing nations, the question needs to be asked: Why were some countries less affected than others? This study will analyze the Asian currency crisis by looking into the extent to which it affected 32 nations in three different regions of the globe. The study is particularly important in light of the recent volatility of the stock market in the US and around the world. It will shed some light into the combination of factors that are likely to cause another financial crisis. Full Article

Cross-functional Teams and Informal Social Networks: A Case Study of Project Development and Performance in a Multidisciplinary Science and Technology National Laboratory
Mario A. Rivera and Max M. Valdez


The present study focuses on a single cross-functional project team in a multidisciplinary science and technology national laboratory in the United States, with particular emphasis on the contribution of team-member networks to project success. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with members of the subject team and with project stakeholders to identify how this factor, namely network-embeddedness, along with other organizational and individual variables, had an impact on team productivity and success. The study’s findings indicate that, while there is growing emphasis on the use of cross-functional teams in this laboratory as elsewhere, customary institutional support mechanisms fail to sustain teamwork when they are not specifically aimed at the utilization of networks to generate knowledge and other resources. Management support for team networking, on the basis of conscious awareness of the importance of networks, determines the extent to which network engagement may influence group performance. Full Article