ISSN 1556-6757






Volume 1, Issue 1, 2007

Impact of Parenting Styles and Locus of Control on Emerging Adults' Psychosocial Success
Cheryl S. Marsiglia, Jeffrey J. Walczyk, Walter C. Buboltz, Diana A. Griffith-Ross


This study examines the impact of locus of control (LOC) and perceptions of parenting styles (PS) on the psychosocial success (PSS) of emerging adults (EAs). PSS was defined as the successful resolution of the tasks postulated by Erikson’s stage theory of psychosocial development (1975). The Measures of Psychosocial Development (based on Erikson’s theory; Hawley 1988), the Parental Authority Questionnaire (Buri 1991), and the Internal-External scale of Rotter (1966) were completed by 334 undergraduates (ages 18-25). Analyses revealed associations between (1) authoritative parenting and PSS, (2) maternal authoritative parenting and internal LOC, and (3) external LOC and maternal permissive and authoritarian PS. The relation between paternal PS and PSS was also moderated by LOC. Emerging adults’ PSS may be affected both directly by their perceptions of the PS they encountered earlier in life and indirectly through LOC, which may also be influenced by perceived PS. Full Article

An Overview of the Influences of Distance Learning on Adult Learners
Henry O’Lawrence


This article depicts the meaning of Distance Learning (DL) and its implementation to enhance learning and teaching in higher education. This study describes the historical background of distance learning education, factors that influence adult learners, and DL’s key objectives, effects, issues, advantages, and disadvantages. The advent of new methods of teaching with technology has resulted in issues concerning the delivery of courses through the World Wide Web and the difficulties involved in incorporating Information Technology (IT) into an existing curriculum. Among the examples, colleges and universities are implementing distance learning programs for 3 reasons: (a) the convergence of communication and computing technologies, (b) the need for information-age workers to acquire new skills without interrupting their working lives for extended periods of time, and (c) the need to reduce the cost of education. Distance learning has gained ground in institutions of higher learning because of its flexibility and availability to learners and teachers, regardless of geographic location. This study does not focus on technology; rather, it focuses on the consequences of using technology for course design, delivery, and the perception of adult learners participating in distance learning  Full Article

MEMS Research and Curriculum Development by Bulk Micromachining Technology
Dugan Um and Scott Lloyd


Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are small, integrated devices or systems that combine electrical and mechanical components. They range in size from the sub micrometer (or sub micron) level to the millimeter level. MEMS extends the fabrication techniques developed for the integrated circuit industry to add mechanical elements such as beams, gears, diaphragms, and springs to devices. These systems can be utilized for sensor, control, or actuator technology in micro-scale, and function individually or in arrays to generate synergic effects on the macro scale providing foundation of fabrication technology for large arrays of micro-scale devices to accomplish complicated functions. Bulk micromachining, one of the MEMS technologies, is an essential method to fabricate micro or nano scale structures on the pure silicon wafer. It was not until the recent past when the directional wet etching process was fully understood in the crystal structure level and utilized for mechanical parts fabrication practically. Due to the precision sculpturing capability of a 3D structure, the bulk micromachining became one of the most important technologies for nano structure manufacturing areas. As an introductory session of the MEMS technology into the Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology curriculum (TECH 4392), a series of design and development plans of a micro scale cantilever beam structure had been performed during the summer 2004. The result of the study has been implemented in the course successfully in year 2005 spring semester. In this paper, we detailed material requirements, safety precautions, process operations for wet oxidation process and anisotropic wet etching of pure silicon crystal, utilizing infrastructures including a 10,000 certified clean room in the department. In brief, we review the bulk micromachining process and its parameters set forth for the course and share some useful results from a pedagogical standpoint. The MEMS curriculum development project introduced herein has been supported by NSF grant (#0411262). Full Article

Acute physiological response to treadmill walking with torso mounted weight in young women
John B. Hammett, Suresh Perera, William T. Hey, and Roland A. Thornburg

Eleven college age women (22.4 ± 2.21 years) volunteered to participate in this three-session experiment that investigated the acute physiological response to progressively increasing grades of treadmill walking while wearing a weighted vest.  The three experimental sessions consisted of walking at a treadmill speed of 4-km×hr-1 at grades of 0%, 4%, 8%, 12%, and 16% for five minutes at each level.  Subjects were randomly assigned to each of three treatments: walking with no vest (NV), walking with a 110% body weight (110%BW) load, and a 120% of body weight (120%BW) load.  Fifth minute data were evaluated statistically: heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP).  ANOVA with repeated measures was used for statistical analysis.  Scheffe comparison determined significant differences between treatments.  The results showed that the addition of 20%BW stimulated a significant increase in heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, systolic blood pressure (SBP), at all inclines of walking over NV.  Yet, the increase in oxygen uptake amounted to an average of only one MET at each grade.  The increases in SBP and HR did not reach values considered to be abnormal for aerobic exercise.  Full Article

A School-Based Physical Activity Program Tailored to Adolescent Girls
Mary Neisen, Carie A. Braun, Linda Shepherd

The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the impact of the standard co-ed physical education curriculum versus the impact of a female-only tailored physical education class on physical fitness and self-perceptions. A sample of 27 eighth grade females (13=control group and 14=intervention group), from one Midwest middle school were recruited. Guided by Pender’s Revised Health Promotion Model, the authors set out to determine if there were differences in pre or post-intervention physical fitness levels, body composition, self-regulatory efficacy, self-perceptions (social acceptance, physical appearance, athletic competence, and global self-worth), exercise frequency, barriers, benefits, and commitment to an exercise plan between the intervention and control groups. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to compare pre-intervention and post-intervention results for each measure within and between the intervention group, the control group, and both groups combined. The intervention group had a higher increase in body fat percentage and in regards to fitness levels; they showed greater gains in abdominal strength but lost ground in measures of quickness with a shuttle run post intervention. The control group exercised vigorously more frequently outside of PE class then the intervention group. Both groups had a low exercise self-regulatory efficacy post intervention and spent 3 hours per day in sedentary activity. There were no significant changes in self perceptions in either group. Results and implications are discussed and suggestions for health and physical education professionals are offered for promoting physical activity in this population. Full Article

Impact of One Science Teacher’s Beliefs on His Instructional Practice
Marla J. Johnson,  Janice L. Hall

Research on beliefs indicates that teachers are crucial change agents leading the way to educational reform, and that teacher beliefs are precursors to change.  Like the students they teach, teachers bring to their classrooms a set of beliefs about teaching and learning that are shaped through years of personal experience, and as learners within families, communities, and cultures.  In addition to the beliefs teachers hold about teaching and learning are their perceptions of the students they teach. Both teacher beliefs about learning and perceptions about their students translate into classroom instructional practice. These practices in turn, shape the dynamics of student learning.  Teachers’ beliefs and expectations of their students are part of a personal belief system influenced by prior personal experiences, experiences with diverse students, teachers’ role definitions, and knowledge of appropriate teaching strategies. Ultimately, these beliefs and expectations interact and may influence science teachers’ planning and delivery of instruction, influencing student achievement.  The aim of this qualitative case study was to examine what actually happens during science lessons in a middle school with a high percentage of low-income minority students. It provides for a deeper insight and understanding of how one teacher’s beliefs about his students influences his instructional practices. Furthermore, the intent of the research was to inform practice in science instruction.

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25 Guidelines for NCATE Unit Assessment
Heidi L. Schnackenberg, Elizabeth Zadoo, Darcy Aubrey

Accrediting bodies, such as the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), strive to improve the quality of teacher preparation programs.  Through assessment-based analysis of institutional practices, NCATE accredits institutions of higher education that successfully address six Unit Standards.  Although all the NCATE Standards are important, this article is focused on aspects and issues surrounding Standard 2, Assessment and Unit Evaluation.  It is the intention of the authors that their experiences with the NCATE accreditation process will help other institutions develop their own system, with an understanding of what will make it a worthwhile endeavor.  What follows is a combination of guidelines for building the assessment system, lessons that we learned, and words of wisdom about the overall process of accreditation. Full Article

Moral Imperatives and Modern Sport
Steven Aicinena


Sport serves as a beacon of humanity but it also serves as a source of darkness. The natural law guides humanity toward moral and civil behavior. The performance ethic motivates individuals to act with self-interest and to engage in behavior that causes conflict and pain. Behavior called for by natural law is reflective of that prescribed by many of the world’s great religions. The propensity of sport participants to intentionally harm others, lie, cheat, seek revenge, utilize harsh, divisive and inflammatory language, and demonstrate prideful behavior as a response to the performance ethic is examined through the filter of the natural law and scriptures of various world religions. We are the authors of actions we take in sport and in life. If sport is to have a positive affect upon participants and society, the natural law should be adhered to at all times and the performance ethic’s calling denied. Full Article

Gender Equity for At-risk Students
Dianne Reed, Julie Combs, Anthony J. Harris, Mack T. Hines, III, Shirley Johnson, Carol H. Parker, Rebecca Robles-Pina


Historically, the existence of inequities and inequalities between genders in US society has been well documented; and in contemporary society, many inequities continue to manifest themselves in a variety of social systems, including education, juvenile justice, and the economy.  Such inequities demand strong responses from practitioners, scholars, policy makers, and others who support the principles of equality, equity, and social justice. This article identifies and discusses contemporary issues that are representative of gender inequity within the systems of education, juvenile justice, and economics.  The authors explore ways in which historical and contemporary gender inequity issues have impacted and continue to impact student achievement, drug use, delinquency, poverty, and homelessness.  Furthermore, the authors offer concrete suggestions and recommendations for teachers, school leaders, and policy makers on ways to bridge the gender equity gap. Full Article

Teaching Strategies Promoting Active Learning in Healthcare Education
Amy T. Russell, Robert J. Comello,Donna Lee Wrigh


Expanding technologies for clinical practice increase the amount of content that healthcare programs, such as Radiologic Science programs, must cover.  Educational technologies provide opportunities for new approaches to education delivery, including a shift to student-centered, active learning activities.  This literature review reveals that strategies such as questioning techniques, self-directed learning, concept mapping, problem-based learning and case-based instruction are used by educators within several allied health programs to promote active learning and encourage students to become critical thinkers and problem solvers. In cases with problem based learning curriculums, the instructor has a minimal role in student direction.  Radiologic science educators should consider how to best incorporate these active learning strategies into their teaching. Full Article


Teaching Adolescent English Language Learners Using Non-fiction Text
Margo DelliCarpiniL

Content area teachers face the challenge of growing numbers of second language learners in their mainstream subject area classrooms. In addition to the increasing language learner population, many secondary level English as a second language (ESL) students have had interrupted formal education and lack the academic and literacy skills necessary to engage with text in the context of English or Social Studies classes. This article focuses on the challenges older ESL students can face when interacting with subject area material and highlights an instructional practice to meaningfully engage adolescent second language learners with authentic text using the non-fiction work, Women’s Diaries of the Westward Journey (Schlissel, 1982; 1992). Student academic skills and language and literacy levels are enhanced by virtue of their engagement with authentic text and the practice described can be implemented in either a Content Based ESL classroom or in a subject area classroom. Full Article

The Role of Manipulatives in Arithmetic and Geometry Tasks

Taylor Martin, Ayiesha Lukong, Raven Reaves

Many researchers and teachers advocate the use of manipulatives, hands-on objects like base-10 blocks, to support students’ mathematics learning. However, the evidence supporting this practice is mixed. Results from our prior research suggested a novel explanation for how manipulatives help children learn. The proposal, “physically distributed learning” (PDL), is that action with manipulatives supports learning when it provides a way for children to simultaneously and iteratively adapt and interpret their environment. Research in the area of arithmetic supports PDL, but it has not been examined in geometry. This paper examines the possibility that physical action may have different effects in arithmetic and geometry tasks in the context of two studies with kindergarten, first- and second-grade students. In the arithmetic study, students solved addition word problems using manipulatives and drawings. In the geometry study, students completed a shape identification task with manipulatives and drawings.
 On addition tasks, children were more successful with manipulatives than with pictures, replicating previous arithmetic studies. On geometry tasks, children also benefited from manipulation, but in different ways. Using manipulatives and pictures led to similar overall performance. However, all children were more likely to rotate their paper or physical shape when this action could help them identify the shape. In addition, when asked to make non-triangles into triangles, children using manipulatives (pipe cleaners) reshaped non-triangles, while those who worked with pictures drew a prototypical triangle (roughly equilateral) on top of these shapes. These results suggest that while the spatial nature of geometry tasks may change the effects of manipulatives on problem solving, manipulation still helps children expand their investigations in the physical environment and thereby advance their thinking. Full Article

A User's Guide to the Legacy Cycle
Stacy S. Klein,Alene H. Harris


Research has shown that students’ mastery of content knowledge and their ability to apply that knowledge in new situations improves when certain classroom characteristics are met. The book How People Learn identifies these characteristics of classrooms and curricula that optimize student learning as knowledge-centeredness, learner centeredness, assessment centeredness, and community centeredness. The question then becomes how these four centerednesses can be put into practice in classroom instruction. In answer, the Legacy Cycle curriculum structure was designed as a way to embed these four centerednesses into classroom lessons. This guide is designed to facilitate an instructor’s implementation of this lesson model: the curriculum structure is defined step by step, with (1) examples of each step, (2) potential advantages and possible problems associated with each step, and (3) classroom management strategies to avoid the problems proactively and thus allow students to profit from the advantages. Suggestions for introducing the Legacy Cycle to your students are also provided.
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Toward a Better Understanding of Human Intelligence
Masoud Ghaffari


This study was conducted for a better understanding of human intelligence and to explore factors and events that may influence the development and/or impediment of it. Using a phenomenological method, 48 participants with diverse experiential, vocational, academic, and cultural backgrounds were interviewed. From coding and analyzing the data three categories emerged: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and transpersonal. In this paper I discuss the complexity of understanding the phenomenon of human intelligence with particular focus on these three emerging categories Full Article