ISSN 1556-6757














Volume 1, Issue 1, 2007

Gun Peripherals and Video Game Play: Is there a Weapons-Priming Effect?

Robert H. Hamby and Mary Ballard

There is evidence that playing violent video games increases physiological arousal, negative emotions, and aggressive thoughts and behavior. There is an argument that exposure to a weapon stimulus (e.g., guns; photos of guns) primes individuals to think and behave aggressively, but the evidence is weak and inconsistent. First-person-shooter video games can be played using gun-like peripherals. There is no research examining if using a gun peripheral during video game play moderates responses. However some psychologists have suggested that playing violent video games with a gun peripheral is a likely context to increase arousal and aggression beyond the affects seen when violent games are played without a gun peripheral. In this study, 60 male participants (aged 13-18) played a video game using a gun peripheral or standard controller; half of those who played the game with the controller saw the gun peripheral on top of the TV and vice versa. Given (a) the confounded and mixed evidence regarding weapons priming and (b) the unrealistic appearance of the gun peripheral, it was hypothesized that cardiovascular arousal, self-reported aggression, and behavioral aggression would not be affected by using or seeing the video game gun peripheral. It was hypothesized that video game play per se would result in increased heart rate and blood pressure. Both hypothesis were supported; exposure to a gun peripheral during video game play did not significantly affect cardiovascular arousal, self-reported aggression, or behavioral aggression and video game play did result in increased cardiovascular arousal. The theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. Full Article

Historical Analysis of AIDS Patients in Uganda Using Innovative Community Clinic Service:
The AIDS Support Organization (TASO)
Michelle Calvarese,Sherry Bame, Bakama BakamaNume


This study examined the case of Uganda’s The AIDS Support Organization (TASO) services and changes in their clients’ sexual behavior. This study used statistical analyses to investigate the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics of the general population and of TASO clients and correlate patterns of sexual behavior with use of TASO centers.  The first step of the analysis described the frequencies and proportions of the following variables within the TASO data set: Sex, Age, and Employment.  It was then determined by use of a ratio equation Z-test if the proportion of each category of the TASO data set differed from the proportion in the same category of the national AIDS data and the national census of the general population. Analysis for examining TASO client changes in safe-sex behavior, utilized data collected between May and August of 1997.  Analysis of socio-demographic characteristics found that high-risk groups among the TASO population appeared to be females in their late twenties and employed.  Analysis of case studies revealed that during the course of long term TASO care, 25 percent of patients changed their behavior from unprotected sex to abstinence.  The findings of this study supported the importance of TASO’s approach to care as a means of increasing safe-sex behaviors among HIV/AIDS patients. Full Article

Is There Indeed A “Nigerian English?

Timothy T. Ajani

The global spread of the English language as one of the most far-reaching linguistic phenomena of our time is already an established fact. Evidence of this worldwide phenomenon of language contact, variation and change can be seen through such designations as world Englishes, new Englishes, modern Englishes, West African Englishes, South African English, Australian English, Indian English, to mention just a few. The phrase “Nigerian English” has also appeared in the last four decades or so. The purpose of this paper is to re-apprise the arguments involving the existence or non-existence of a distinct variety of English known as “Nigerian English.” Some of the issues explored include the following: Is there really such a thing as Nigerian English? What has been said thus far, and by whom? What are the main arguments for and against? What conclusions can be drawn from them? If there is indeed such a variety of English, what are its main identifying characteristics? Full Article

Brutal Cops, News Coverage, and Public Perceptions of Law Enforcement: An Experimental Investigation of Reality Construction
Gregg A. Payne and David Dozier

This research examines the relationship between newspaper coverage of police brutality, the public construction of law enforcement reality, and the predictive capacity of exemplification theory. Two randomly selected subsamples were assigned to either a control or test condition in a posttest only experiment. Those in the test group were exposed to six newspaper accounts recounting incidents of police brutality. A negative construction of reality associated with policecitizen interaction followed exposure. It is clear that public faith in law enforcement is eroded by extra legal police behavior, and that police-citizen relationships are contaminated, as a consequence. Further research is called for, involving more ethnically and racially diverse populations, a more representative age demographic, and media other than newspapers, both print and electronic. Full Article

The Political Economy of Everyday Life: Working Children in Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Marcia Mikulak

Numerous articles about working children in Brazil focus on HIV-Aids, child labor, crime, and petty thievery; however, social science literature does not analyze their positive contributions.  From the perspective of working children, this article discusses the contributions that they make to their families as they navigate between home, school, and the informal labor market.  Data are presented on the types of work that working children perform, time spent working, money earned, and contributions to their family household incomes.  In addition, this article argues that the lack of extra-familial support networks within favelas contributes to the high numbers of children working within informal markets in Brazilian cities.  Finally, Brazil’s legacy of slavery is linked to the political economy of patron-client relations as it impacts working children and their families. Full Article


Christianity and the Pagan: Comparisons of Religious Dogma in Late Roman Antiquity and New World Spanish Colonialism    Rhianna C. Rogers and Jennifer L. Blank

Historic and modern scholarship has shown that both early Medieval and Colonial Christianity promoted idealized interpretations of conversion and paganism. More specifically, theologians in these eras viewed groups outside of the idealized Christology as barbarous and irrational. One can argue that the Christian hierarchy in Late Roman Antiquity and the Spanish New World intentionally propagated eurocentric ideas of cultural supremacy in order to demonize pagan practices. The authors of this paper intend to explore the relationship between Christianity and paganism in both Late Roman Antiquity (c.a., A.D. 300-500) and the Spanish New World (A.D.1450-1550.) This paper utilizes both historical research and the modern concepts of globalization and comparative history in order to demonstrate the calculated strategy of Christian conversion and pagan resistance that occurred during these periods. Utilizing a comparative examination of both periods , this paper attempts to demonstrate the manipulative tactics employed by both religious theologians and conquerors to promote the conversion of pagans to Christian ideals of

“proper” society. Full Article

What Can Industry Trade Orientation Tell Us About Trade-related Employment Dynamics?
Roger White

This paper explores whether imports and exports affect industry employment differently based on the industry’s trade orientation. Effects of trade are examined for both production and non-production employment using data for 384 6-digit manufacturing industries, classified by the North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS), and 116 trading partners that span the years 1972 to 2001. Additionally, the paper considers potential employment effects stemming from shifts in import sources from high- to low-income nations. The findings confirm theory and provide a more detailed portrait of trade-related employment dynamics. As the United States further liberalizes trade, net job loss may be expected in more labor-intensive industries that run trade deficits and possess lower than average levels of technology. Export-oriented industries characterized by more capital-intensive production and possession of above-average levels of technology are expected to see net job creation. Full Article


Ten Characters in Search of a Group: A Sketch of Bloomsbury
One-Soon Her


This paper offers a sketch of ten of the most essential figures in the Bloomsbury Group. Among the ten Bloomsburries, there are two critics: Clive Bell in painting, Desmond MacCarthy in letters. Virginia Woolf and E. M. Forster, the two great novelists, and Lytton Strachey, the biographer, are the three literary figures. There are three painters: Roger Fry, who was also an art theorist and critic, Vanessa Bell, and Duncan Grant. And then there are John Maynard Keynes, an economist and political theorist, and Leonard Woolf, a writer and influential publisher. The paper also describes the origin of the group and some of the interactions among these influential figures.
Full Article


Autism’s relation to Theory of Mind, Executive Control and Simulation Theory.
Michael K. Cundall Jr.

The developmental disorder of autism has played a central role in theories of socio-cognitive development. This article critiques the widely held view that autism is a test case which can be used to adjudicate among competing theories of cognitive development. Relying on new research findings on persons with autism perceptual abilities, this paper argues that autism is a disorder likely caused by early perceptual deficits in the perception of social/biological stimuli. This paper critiques three specific approaches to social cognition: Executive Control Theory, Theory of Mind (ToM) and Simulation Theory. Full Article


Heterophenomenology Debunked
Tan Kock Wah

What is analyzed in this paper is of fundamental importance to the viability of Dennett’s works on mind and consciousness. Dennett uses the heterophenomenology method as the basis to ground his thoughts on subjectivity and phenomenal experiences. It is argued here that Dennett’s formulation of heterophenomenology fails to provide the founding framework with which to ground studies on consciousness and qualia. Analysis in the paper has important import on the rest of his theory of consciousness and mind, for without credible philosophical underpinnings, his reasoning on consciousness and mind at large is not likely to amount to much. Full Article

Between Globalization and Indigenization: On Taiwan’s Pinyin Issue from the Perspectives
of the New Economy

One-Soon Her



The only remaining controversy in Taiwan’s efforts to standardize its pinyin system for Chinese is

whether to adopt Tongyong or Hanyu; while the former has an intense symbolic value of

indigenization, the latter enjoys a substantial globalized distribution. This paper first makes clear

the nature of ‘interface’ of any pinyin system and examines this seemingly domestic issue from the perspectives of the New Economy in the global Information Age. Given the characteristics of

‘increasing returns’ and ‘path-dependence’, Hanyu Pinyin, with its universal standardization and

dominant global market share, is the obvious choice. Taiwan’s implementation of Tongyong Pinyin must necessarily incur the cost of dual interfaces. Given the 85% overlap between the two

systems, Tongyong, as a politically meaningful symbol, ironically, also creates a division among

Taiwan’s population. The unfortunate politicization of the pinyin issue has cornered the nation into a dilemma: Tongyong costs economically, Hanyu costs politically. The ultimate reconciliation thus hinges upon the implementation of a system that optimizes Tongyong’s indigenized symbolic value and Hanyu’s globalized substance, to the furthest extent possible. Full Article


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