ISSN 1556-6757






Volume 1, Issue 2, 2007

The Resilience of Aztec Women: A Case Study of Modern Aztec Myths
Rhianna C. Rogers

Archival documents have shown both Spain’s attempts at Christianizing the Aztecs and their

justifications for the destruction of traditional native beliefs and gender roles. More specifically,

these documents reveal how Spanish and Christian andocentric ideologies attempted to pacify

Aztec female roles and remove them from places of power. An examination of Aztec-Spanish

relations, emphasizing the religiosity and mentalities of both the conquered and the conquerors,

provides an interesting correlation between the transformation of native women’s social status

and their acceptance and/or denial of European patriarchical customs. This article focuses on the reciprocating system of duality existing between men and women in Aztec life and religion, the rate of acculturation of Spanish patriarchical structures by native peoples, and two contemporary Aztec case studies that exhibit differing levels of acculturation, traditional sustainability, and religious preservation. These scenarios will illustrate the various factors contributing to the transformation and, in some cases, the preservation of pre-Columbian female Aztec roles. Full Article


E-Class as a Step toward Solving e-Learning Problems: Analytical Study for the SQU Case
Naeema H. Jabr, Abdul-Kareem Kallow, Mousa Al-Kindee


As e-learning is becoming a growing trend in today’s educational system, much attention has been given to its different practices, such as e-class and online courses. This is motivated by the need to increase the value of classroom exercises as a teaching tool by improving communication, understanding, and selflearning in order to increase the speed of information transfer, processing, and utilization. Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) has utilized e-learning since September 2001 through the WebCT and Moodle, thus taking advantage of the many benefits of the new information and telecommunication technologies. Such an innovation has helped faculty to use WebCT as an aid to traditional class. This study, however, proposes that e-class is made an alternative application to the traditional class. The main purposes underlying this suggestion are: (a) to take advantage of the available expertise to teach either a larger number of students or several classes simultaneously, (b) to take advantage of the available

demonstrators and technicians to help control classes and communications, (c) to disseminate electronic literacy, which is considered to be the main characteristic of the current era, as well as to make the interactive opportunities available to lecturers, demonstrators, and students, and (e) to participate in the international trends toward electronic learning. To achieve the above purposes, two different faculty and student questionnaires were developed. 297 students, 29 faculty members, and 3 technicians were selected as the main audience of the study. In most cases, around 60% of the students showed that the main shortcomings of e-learning come from the style appearance of faculty to provide better course quality. Reflections and attitudes average mean scores toward the effectiveness of e-learning and the organization of materials show no differences among science and social science respondents, the only significant differences being found between medical science and sciences respondents in terms of knowledge integration. Full Article


News Framing West Nile Virus . an Outbreak of New Health Hazard
Yeo, Eun-Ho, Park, Kyung-Woo, Arabi, Afif


The current study examines the pattern of media coverage on a health hazard issue, West

Nile Virus, at its outbreak. To examine how media depicted West Nile Vile issue, news

articles addressing this issue are run by computer mediated content analysis. 466 news

articles published from September 25th, 1999 to October 31st, 2000 in three major newspapers

around New York City area are put to content analysis. Based on semantic network, cluster

analysis is performed to find news frames in the depiction of West Nile Virus. The result of

cluster analysis shows the depiction of this new health hazard contains two distinct words

clusters, Prognostics and Diagnostics, which are not uncommon in news coverage of health

issue. Full Article

The Visual Byte: Bill Clinton and His Town Hall Meeting Style
Mark Goodman, Mark Gring,Brian Anderson

Bill Clinton in the town hall debates of 1996 and 2000 included physical, non-verbal debate strategies.  This paper analyzed these "visual bytes” to see how Clinton used them during the debates.  While the impact of “visual bytes” on the audience cannot be measured, this paper discusses the rhetorical implications of their use. Full Article

CMPC (Computer Mediated Political Communication) And Its Impact On The Political Process
In Korea
Won, Suk-Kyoung,Yeo, Eun-Ho, Lee, Bum-Soo, Arabi, Afif


This study examines public participation in political process through CMPC (computer mediated political communication)in Korea. The authors examine political discussions from March to April, 1997, on two major on-line computer networks that are the most popular in Korea. The results show that CMPC in Korea is in its developing stage. Also, it is found that the public access to the political forum established by political society tends to be difficult and private information is often not secured. However, it was found that through CMPC, gradually more information from political society is open to the civil society and that information flow between political society and civil society is improved.
Full Article


Play vs. Presence in Star Trek

Scott K. Duchesne

Over time, two fields of Star Trek scholarship have emerged. First, there is the study of what has

been called the .participatory culture. of Star Trek. The second field explores a range of more

traditionally .academic. subjects in relation to the Star Trek franchise. The central claim in many

of the texts of the second field is that there is a .centre. to Star Trek, a way to definitively

understand its fundamental appeal. This paper will argue that Star Trek deliberately lacks and

resists the imposition of .a point of presence, a fixed origin., favoring negotiative rather than

authoritative meanings. Full Article


Mediators’ Accounts of Empowerment and Disempowerment in Divorce Mediation
Jo Daugherty Bailey



 The empowerment of disputants is a core concept in the mediation literature.  The current study was conducted to contribute to the understanding and theoretical development of empowerment in divorce mediation.  A thematic analysis of interviews with seven family mediators found the mediators’ perceive divorce mediation to be an inherently empowering method of resolution and revealed an environmental explanation for empowerment in mediation and disempowerment in the court system.  The mediators also described personal, contextual, and structural features that may foster disempowerment in mediation. Full Article

Population Aging – Problem or Opportunity? Lessons from the Case of Finland
Jan Kunz

This study reviews the problems and opportunities connected to population ageing in Finland. In the focus are particularly issues related to the social security system, the labour market and the economy in general. The results indicate that population ageing is a medal with two sides. Currently the public focus is primarily on negative aspects related to the socio-demographic development, such as increasing spending for pensions, potential labour shortages, as well as problems in the field of social and health care. Yet population ageing also offers opportunities, for example, in the shape of a ‘silver economy’ and voluntary work on behalf of retirees. Both aspects have been largely neglected in Finland so far. Compared to the other Nordic countries, Finland finds itself in a more difficult position concerning the impact of population ageing. Attitude changes and active policies are essential to cope with the rapidly increasing number of elder people in society and its effects. Full Article


From dawn to dust: the development of classical sports in Greece- an example
Stratos Georgoulas

The present study aims at recording assumptions through observation and bibliographical research, regarding the development of classical sports in Greece. Using the example of the National Gymnastic Association of Greece (N.G.A), it is claimed that the course from the foundation of the association until the contemporary crisis is directly related to the socio-economic developments of upper middle class. Full Article


Models of Choice and the TTB Heuristic
Louis N. Gray and Wanda I. Griffith

We examine the suitability of the Take-the-Best (TTB) heuristic (Gigerenzer, et al., 1999) as a mechanism for explaining repeated choice in experimental situations. Simulations utilizing TTB are shown to explain behavior in binary, ternary, and concurrent choice as well as previous models that were based on cost. The development of mathematical models of choice may have led us to focus on irrelevant factors rather than the kinds of information readily available to a subject. The utility of this heuristic as an explanatory tool is shown to represent a simple alternative to many current models of choice. Full Article

A Discourse of Diversity: Arab Students’ Perspectives on Institutional Climate - A Study of
Two Public Colleges in Israel  
 Dan Soen, Nitza Davidovitch and Michal Kolan

This paper summarizes the findings of a study conducted at two public colleges in Israel: the
Academic College of Judea and Samaria (ACJS), Israel’s largest independent public college, and the Western Galilee College (WGC), a much smaller institution an extension of Bar Ilan University. The paper is based on the analysis of a survey completed by 459 students. This study examined three aspects related to the climate of the institution, and the fabric of the interpersonal relations between these two groups of students: (a) Arab students’ perceptions of equality and consideration for minority groups; (b) Students’ perceptions of the relationships between the two groups; (c) Arab students’ apprehensions stemming from their minority status. Findings highlight a complex, mainly positive reality. Considerable findings stand in contrast to prevalent public beliefs, and to the situation on other campuses in Israel. The important lesson of this study is that - despite differences in religion, culture and nationality, despite the complexity of the minority experience in Israel, and despite the dark shadow cast on Arab-Jewish relations by the Israel-Palestinian conflict – a rather positive climate prevails on these campuses as far as the relations between these two groups is concerned.
Full Article

Another Shot at the Democratic Peace: Are Democracies More Aggressive than Non-Democracies in Militarized Interstate Disputes?   Ole J. Forsberg

Oft-mentioned and oft-discussed, the Democratic Peace Thesis has its supporters and detractors. Often, the Thesis is tested by examining whether democracies are involved in conflicts of varying degrees. In this paper, I test the Democratic Peace Thesis in a slightly different manner. Using the First Use of Violent Force dataset, I examine the conditional effects of democracy on initiating violent force in a militarized interstate dispute. Logistic regression analysis of all militarized interstate disputes listed in the MID project for the period 1980–2001, controlled for state wealth, alliances, military expenditures, major power status, population, and polarity, show that democracies are less likely to be the initiators of violent force, but only in the final stages of the Cold War. The analysis also shows significant, yet confounding, effects of major power status, military expenditures by the state, and number of defense pacts (although not neutrality agreements or ententes) to which the state is a party. Finally, the analysis significantly shows that wealthier states, in terms of GDP per capita, are less likely to initiate violent force in the conflict — a finding that is quite strong in the post-Cold War period. Full Article

Police Behavior and Public Perceptions of Justice: A Study of Media Effects on Reality Construction   Gregg A. Payne and David Dozier

This research examines the relationship between newspaper coverage of police malfeasance in evidence handling and the public construction of reality related to the administration of justice. Two randomly selected subsamples were assigned to either a control or test condition in a posttest only experiment. Those in the test group were exposed to four newspaper accounts of evidence contamination involving police. Three hypotheses were tested. Each hypothesis postulated that exposure to such articles would result in the test group having a more negative view of justice administration than would the control group. All three hypotheses were supported. 
Full Article

“The Girls in Moral Danger”: Child Prostitution and Sexuality in Colonial Lagos, Nigeria, 1930s
to 19501
   Saheed Aderinto

This essay examines child prostitution as one of the numerous forms of social and sexual networking in the colonial urban space of Lagos, Nigeria between the 1930s and 1950. While adult prostitution otherwise called “prostitution proper” has received scholarly attention, historians, especially of Africa, have yet to pay serious attention to child prostitution. This work is an attempt at looking at the social, legal, economic and even political contradictions associated with the vicissitudes of child prostitution in colonial Lagos. I coin the terminology- “lego-social construct”- to explain the problems of establishing the ages of child prostitutes in Lagos. By identifying how the question of age affects the ways historians write about child prostitution, I argue that scholars need to appreciate that study of child prostitution without a critical examination of relevant historiographical problems such as age and masculine sexuality constitute a serious flaw in the attempt towards unraveling this aspect of human historical past.
Full Article

Lucy, Angela, Maureen, Jane, and Katharine: Perceptions of Actresses as They Age
Mark Goodman, Carolyn Adams-Price, Bonnie Oppenheimer, Jim Codling, Jasna Vuk, S. Theresa Wheeler, Thomas Robinson, G. D. Smith, Jr., Christie Kleinmann

We showed students at a university movie clips from early, middle, and late in the careers of Katharine Hepburn, Jane Fonda, Lucille Ball, Maureen O’Hara, and Angela Lansbury. The study participants assigned feminine and masculine traits to the characters and rated their likeability and attractiveness. The data showed that the participants liked the actresses better and saw them as more feminine later in their careers than in the early years of their careers. These results contradict Hollywood stereotypes about the appropriate movie roles for women.
Full Article

Rawls’s Law of Moral Peoples
Sanja Ivic

Rawls does not advocate liberal imperialism in his work. He claims that peoples have a moral nature and that they cannot be treated instrumentally. Subsequently, he argues that decent hierarchical societies should be tolerated. Rawls emphasizes that it is the peoples ( not individuals ) who are moral actors. The Law of Peoples results from a second original position in which the parties are representatives of peoples whose basic institutions satisfy the principles of justice. Therefore, Rawls rejects cosmopolitanism and the conception of global justice which is founded on the idea of original position in which parties are representatives of persons who hold different social positions. Full Article

Determinants of Contraceptive Usage: Lessons from Women in Osun State, Nigeria
Oyedokun Amos

This paper analyses the awareness and utilisation of modern contraceptive methods among 408 women of reproductive age 15-49 years in a Local Government area of Osun State, Nigeria. Results showed that although knowledge of contraceptive methods was high among these women, only 30.1% ever used any of the known methods and less than a tenth were currently using any modern method at the time of the survey. Logistic regression result did not significantly support the hypotheses that knowledge of a method and number of children ever born will likely impact the use of modern contraceptive methods in the study area.