ISSN 1556-6757









Volume 1, Issue 1, 2007


Promoting Tourism As U.S. Foreign Aid:  Building On The Promise Of The Caribbean Basin Initiative      Robertico R. Croes, Patrick L. Schmidt


Many economists are questioning the role of foreign aid as a development tool. The Caribbean region has received significant amounts of foreign aid but with mixed results. The region confronts daunting development issues, such as declining productivity and employment against the backdrop of a challenging international environment with a high risk of natural disasters. The study argues that tourism is a stable source of growth for the region and has great potential as a mechanism for distributing foreign aid in a market driven approach that may avoid several of the shortcomings of traditional foreign aid. The Caribbean Basin Initiative includes fiscal incentives for U.S. citizens to travel to certain Caribbean countries for the purpose of strengthening their economies and should serve as a model for further study and innovation. This study assesses whether tourism can serve as an approach to delivering U.S. aid to the Caribbean. Full Article

Importance of Core Courses in Students’ Satisfaction

Nicola J. LoCascio, Chris A. Barker, Robert Bickell Sr.

The Biological Sciences Department at Marshall University was finding it difficult to offer the required courses for Biology majors as each curriculum stated. In addition, it was unclear if the course offerings truly represented the best training for the specialized majors. As a starting point for evaluating the curriculum we chose to measure current student satisfaction with introductory courses, preparation for upper-level courses and course offerings. Student satisfaction with their academic agenda has been linked to program strengths, and an assessment was undertaken to identify effective (and ineffective) areas of the curriculum as perceived by students. In particular, was the inclusion of defined core classes, currently set at three, giving students the necessary skills for their upper-level courses, and were there courses within the curriculum that contributed to success following graduation?
A survey questionnaire was developed and administered to students in eleven biological science courses. These courses spanned the biology curriculum and included the participation of freshman, sophomore, junior, senior, and graduate students A selected complement of controls embedded within the administered assessment tool, determined that being enrolled in all three core courses was the only variable that was statistically significant and a positive impact on the students’ perceptions of the quality of their scientific education. An outcome of this study revealed that completing, or currently being enrolled in, all three designated core courses resulted in students rating the quality of their scientific education significantly higher than students who have not taken all core courses. These findings were at the beginning of a restructuring of the Biological Sciences curriculum, with their associated required and recommended courses, and resulted in placing the core courses earlier in the academic programs. Full Article

Philosophy and Techniques of Multicultural Education
Anthony J. Harris



This article presents the case for including multicultural education in the curricula of counseling and educational leadership graduate programs at U.S. universities.  As professions and disciplines, counseling and educational leadership are obligated, ethically, through their respective professional codes of ethics, to ensure that matriculants exit their preparation programs in possession of skills, knowledge, and dispositions that will enable them to behave in a culturally competent manner. While there are different schools of thoughts regarding the most appropriate model for teaching multicultural education, the author argues that there is no incorrect model.  The author offers his views on the topic of multicultural education as one who initially met resistance from colleagues to establish such a course, and who, after the establishment of the course, taught it for nearly fifteen years. Full Article

Africa, Seeds, and Biofuel
Baruti I. Katembo,Pearl S. Gray


Quantity depletion and harmful gas emissions associated with fossil fuels have caused scientists and global attention to focus on the use of alternative, eco-friendly fuel substitutes such as green energies (wind, solar, water, bio) as replacements. Africa, Seeds and Biofuel will highlight Jatropha, a biofuel source seen by many as a conduit for cutting global dependence on fossil fuels as well as an emerging cash crop that can boost rural incomes, infrastructure, and development in poor countries. Jatropha (scientific name Jatropha curcas), a tree (known by

more than 200 multi-language names) growing in abundance in Africa, Central & South America, the Caribbean, India and Southeast Asia, produces seeds which contain oil (37% average content per seed) that is convertible to a Diesel fuel substitute; it has many other attractive qualities, e.g. long seed production life (50 yrs.), droughtresistance, and multi-use applications (soap, insecticide, various medicinal cures). Optimal use of Jatropha seeds as a biofuel are predicted to produce a cheap, abundant and eco-friendly fuel source for transport systems, electricity production, and the powering of cellular networks. Full Article


The Electronic Storage of Cultural Heritage: Challenges and Uncertainties
William W. Bostock


The electronic storage and retrieval of cultural heritage is a great challenge because of the need to maintain components of social memory which is the basis of identity and which is therefore a necessary condition of health and survival. In many countries, cultural heritage has been lost or is endangered, but electronic storage offers the possibility of retention. However there is great uncertainty over the ethics of ownership of cultural property. Debate often takes place in terms of rightful but neglectful ownership versus acquired benevolent custodial ownership often with colonial origin. Virtual ownership may appear to provide an answer but in view of the psychological significance of memorabilia including actual human bodies and body

parts, this would seem highly unlikely. However, in other areas, such as the archiving of text and voice of endangered languages, electronic storage offers a challenge of immense value.
Full Article