ISSN 1556-6757







Volume 1, Issue 1, 2007


A variation of the clock paradox and a distinguishing feature of an inertial frame
Chandru Iyer ,G. M. Prabhu


The clock paradox is analyzed for the case when the onward and return trips cover the same

‘distance’ (as observed by the traveling twin) but at unequal velocities. In this case the

stationary twin observes the distances covered by her sister during the onward and return

trips to be different. The analysis is presented using formulations of special relativity and the

only requirement for consistency is that all observations are made from any one chosen

inertial frame. The analysis suggests that a defining feature of an inertial frame should be

based on the continued maintenance of the distinctive synchronicity of the clocks co-moving

with it. Full Article

The Partial Molar Volumes of FeCl2 and FeCl3 in Ternary Solutions H20-HCI-FeCIx from Density Measurements       Giovanni Di Loreto and Luca D’Ottone


The partial molar volumes of iron (III) and iron (II) in water at infinite dilution were extrapolated from high precision density measurements giving a value of -33.89 [cm3 mole-1] for iron (III) and a value of -2.45 [cm3 mole-1] for iron (II) in the conventional scale where 0 H + V = 0[cm3mole-1]. Density measurements were carried on in ternary solutions of FeClx-H2O-HCl to suppress potential hydrolysis and oxidation processes. A brief comparison of this work with previously published data is provided supporting our determination for the partial molar volume of iron (III). The value for the partial molar volume of iron (II) should still be object of study since poor agreement was found with the very few fragmented literature data. Full Article


Measurement of the sticking probability of self-assembled 1-octadecanethiol on polycrystalline Au surface      Ehab AlShamaileh


The sticking probability of self-assembled 1-octadecanethiol on the surface of polycrystalline Au was  measured using cyclic voltammetry. A Langmuir-like adsorption kinetics was observed for the 1-octadecanethiol adsorption on Au at high micro-molar concentrations which became more

precursor-like at 7.0-10.0 x 10-4 mM concentrations. At 5.0 x 10-4 mM concentration, the adsorption isotherm revealed an additional feature which could be explained by the initial adsorption of the solvent methanol or one of its by-products and subsequent removal by the strong Au-S bond formation. It could be also explained by the formation of a "lying down" phase of the 1-octadecanethiol on Au surface. This phenomenon was reproducibly observed for the 1-octadecanethiol and results compare well with other methods reported in the literature.
Full Article

New Method of Synthesis of Stannic Phosphotungstate and its Characterization as Ion Exchanger      Susheel K Mittal, Rabindra Nath  J. S. Banait

Stannic Phosphotungstate (SnPW) was synthesized by a novel method by the reaction of Tin (II) salt with tungstate and phosphoric acid in the presence of dilute sulphuric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The product was characterized as weakly acidic ion exchanger by pH titrations against alkali metal hydroxides. Ion exchange capacity for alkali and alkaline earth metal ions, distribution coefficients for a number of bivalent metal ions, effect of heat on ion exchange capacity were studied for the ion exchanger. The compound shows excellent chemical stabilities towards acid, neutral and organic solutions. Study of distribution coefficients for various metal ions suggests that SnPW is selective for Pb2+, Ba2+ and Ca2+ in the order, respectively. Structural studies of the compound were carried out using TGA, XRD, FTIR and XRF. Chemical composition of the compound was determined by XRF and the mole ratio was found to be Sn:P:W =  3:1:1.2  Full Article

Proton NMR Determination of Mg2+ and Ca2+ Concentrations Using Tetrasodium EDTA Complexes        Steven Han, Errol V. Mathias, Yong Ba

The quantitative determination of metal ion concentration was previously achieved using disodium EDTA and proton NMR spectroscopy. One drawback using disodium EDTA arose from the determination of group II A metal ions. It was not feasible to distinguish between the chemical shifts of the free EDTA and complexed EDTA. It was found that by using a stronger chelator, tetrasodium EDTA, the chemical shift separation of the free EDTA and the Mg2+ and Ca2+ EDTA complexes in the proton NMR spectra was readily achieved, which facilitates the determination of these metal ions by proton NMR spectroscopy.  Full Article

Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC) of Mushroom Tyrosinase
Andrew Powell, Norman Siu, Jennifer K. Inlow and William H. Flurkey

Partially purified and crude commercial mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) tyrosinase was
subjected to immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) with Cu2+, Ni2+, Co2+, and Zn2+ metal ions bound to iminodiacetic acid (IDA) agarose. Under high salt conditions (500 mM NaCl) tyrosinase was retained on all immobilized metal IDA resins. In contrast, under low salt conditions (10 mM NaCl) tyrosinase was adsorbed only onto Cu2+ IDA agarose. Yields of recovered enzyme were high, and some of these IMAC resins removed contaminating proteins. The enzyme was also adsorbed onto Cu2+ DEAE columns under low salt conditions but not under high salt conditions. Although Cu2+ IDA columns have previously been used to purify polyphenol oxidases from a variety of plants sources, this is the first report of the use of other metal ions chelated to IDA to bind this enzyme, and it is the first report showing the effects of salt

concentration on binding of this enzyme to IMAC resins. Full Article


A critical reading on the theory of gravitational waves propagation
Michel Tailherer


In this paper a discussion arises about causality in Relativity leading to argue inherent issues.

After that, by presenting formal analogies between General Relativity and continuum lagrangian

description, there follows a hypothetical approach for deriving the equations of gravitational

radiation based on the application of the two fundamental quadratic forms of Space-Time (see

equ. (3.6)). Moreover, a technique of resolution is touched. As last expectation, the paper would

want to bring substantial novelties in matter of genesis and especially of gravitational waves

detection. Full Article


The Search for a New Equivalence Principle
Lucian Miti Ionescu


The emerging quantum physics - quantum computing conceptual bridge, mandates a \grand uni-cation" of space-time-matter and quantum information: an \all quantized" quantum digital world. The present article suggests an equivalence principle, to include space-time and entropy beyond Einstein's matter-energy uni cation E = mc2 with the \ xed" correlation with space-time from general relativity G = T. It requires tripling time, not more space dimensions as in String Theory, while complexifying the energy-momentum tensor to include entropy, and nally unify space and time by a generalized Wick rotation: an \external supersymmetry" which trades parallel and sequential quantum computing relative to a space-time coordinate system. The Feynman Path Integral algebraic formalism already has a place for this, when interpreting entropy as a measure of symmetry. Full Article


The Universe Inflationary Expansion, or Accelerating Contraction
Goran Krstic


According to generally accepted cosmological model, the universe is in a state of inflationary and accelerating expansion. Almost all visible galaxies appear not only to be moving away from us, as observed by Hubble at the beginning of the last century, but they are accelerating. This is described as an accelerating expansion of the space-time continuum where galaxies are left as some sort of gravitational islands immune to this universal effect. There is overwhelming observational evidence, which appears to support this concept. However, is it possible to explain an accelerating expansion as a contraction of the universe? Could it be possible that our universe is in a state of free fall with gravitational acceleration? Galactic clusters appear to dominate the Northern Galactic hemisphere and the results of regression analyses performed

in this study indicate statistically significant positive correlation between the maximum Log10 galactic rotation velocities and the Galactic latitudes (r=0.06, p=0.001). The difference between the means of maximum Log10 rotation velocities for distant galaxies in the Northern vs. the Southern Galactic hemisphere is also statistically significant (t=2.58, p=0.0049). This indicates that the universe does not appear to be perfectly homogenous and isotropic in all directions. Based on the observed complex galactic structure distribution and considering currently available galactic rotation velocity and cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, it is not impossible for the universe to be contracting. Although our universe could still be expanding, rotating, or even contracting, we have no sufficient scientific evidence to accept a particular model as valid at this time. Limitations and uncertainties associated with our study of the universe should be duly acknowledged. Full Article

Boundaries of thermal stability of a vibrationally nonequilibrium flowing gas considering constant energy pumping power   Salahdeen M. Younis

The boundaries of the existence of a vibrationally nonequilibrium gas was theoretically studied. The gas was flowing in a circular tube with fixed surface temperature and the nonequilibrium state was maintained by pumping energy into the gas vibrational modes by an external source of power I. Results showed that the gas vibrational energy ε increases by increasing I to a certain maximum value Im above which ε took a fixed maximum value εm and the gas got heated. The variation of εm with Reynolds number, the density and type of the gas, the length and diameter of the tube was determined.  Full Article


Inter-Dendrimer Stabilized Ag/Au Alloy and Core-Shell Nanoparticles
Hossein Nanaie, Alicia Cooper, Shameka Sanders, Donggao Zhao

Ag/Au alloy and Ag/Au core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized by Generation 4 PAMAM

(Polyamidoamine) dendrimer were synthesized in aqueous solution. The alloy was prepared by the reduction of mixtures of metal ions using NaBH4. The plasmon resonance absorption bands of the mixture NPs were red shifted as χAu increased indicating alloy formation. The concentration dependent average diameter was 2.92 0.57 nm at χAu = 0.50. The core-shell composites were prepared by reducing Au+3 with ascorbic acid in solution containing silver NPs seeds. The characteristic surface plasmon absorption of silver NPs at about 400 nm in the seed solution was progressively weakened with the incremental addition of 0.1 mM HAuCl4 in the presence of ascorbic acid and ultimately vanished completely. The disappearance of Ag plasmon absorption was accompanied by the growth, intensification and red shifting of gold NPs absorption reaching a λmax of 576 nm at χAu = 0.75. HRTEM dark field mode image shows that core-shell composite NPs with average diameter of 14.5 2.7 nm are produced, when Ag seeds are allowed to stand 30 minutes at room temperature before capped with Au. Reducing the standing time to 5 minutes, the average particle diameters decreases to 6.2 1.5 nm.

Full Article