ISSN 1556-6757














Volume 1, Issue 1, 2007

Social Buffering in Rats as Measured by Prolactin: A Potential Role for Oxytocin
Janie H. Wilson

Prolactin is released in response to stress, and attenuation of prolactin indicates social buffering. In the present study, adult male and female rats were tested in the conditioned emotional response chamber. Animals tested with a conspecific had lower levels of prolactin than those exposed to the stressor alone. In addition, the present research explored oxytocin as a potential mechanism for changes in prolactin levels during social buffering by injecting animals with 2 mg/kg s.c. Atosiban (1-deamino-2-D-Tyr-(OEt)-4-Thr-8-Orn-oxytocin), a specific oxytocin antagonist. Atosiban-treated rats had higher levels of prolactin than no-shock controls, whereas saline-injected rats returned to control levels. Full Article

Psychiatry in Pakistan: 1947-2006: A New Balance Sheet
Amin A. Muhammad Gadit

This review deals with the evolution of psychiatry in Pakistan since its inception in 1947. It describes the situation of psychiatric services, education and research through the years 1947-2006, presenting a picture of existing mental health scenario, suggesting the ways for improvement and comment on possible future developments. It concludes with the prediction of a revolutionary change in the current shape of psychiatry throughout the world and especially in Pakistan whereby psychiatry will change to organic-based discipline of a wider “Neurosciences”
Full Article

Attachment-Based Intervention with Prepubertal Children:  The Impact of Parent, Child, and Therapist Mental Representations on Intervention Points of Entry
Geoff Goodman

Attachment theory has significantly influenced psychoanalytic developmental theory, from infancy to adulthood, yet until recently, little has been written about clinical intervention using attachment theory.  Some authors (Mayseless, 2005; Waters & Cummings, 2000) have suggested that this paucity of literature reflects the relative lack of theoretical attention John Bowlby, attachment theory’s founding father, paid to any developmental period beyond the preschool years.  Although attachment-based interventions with mothers and infants are beginning to flourish, guidelines for developing attachment-based intervention with prepubertal children are lacking.  The purpose of this article is to attempt to remedy this lack by discussing two areas:  1) potential intervention points of entry with prepubertal children based on attachment theory, and 2) the impact of parent, child, and therapist characteristics, notably mental representations (also known as internal working models), on the potential intervention points of entry being targeted.  In contrast to attachment-based early intervention, in which parental characteristics are targeted, attachment-based intervention with prepubertal children must include the child as well as the parents.  Therapists attempting an attachment-based intervention with prepubertal children must take into account the quality of the child’s mental representation as well as their own quality of mental representation to provide an effective clinical experience. Full Article

The Relationship between Self-Esteem And Indirect Aggression in the Workplace

Sara Dettinger, Gordon Hart

Studies of indirect aggression in adulthood have been limited in past research and many conducted outside of the United States. The current study examined the presence of indirect aggression in a large computer company and insurance company in the Northeastern United States, using the Work Harassment scale (Bjorkqvist, Osterman, and Lagerspetz, 1994) as the measure of indirect aggression. The concepts of personal self-esteem and collective self-esteem were also examined using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Collective Self-esteem scale. Results showed that there was a relationship between personal self-esteem and indirect aggression. Implications of the study and future directions of research are discussed.

Full Article


A Human-Computer Interaction Study Examining the Relationship Between Aggressive Responding in a Computer Game and Self-Reported Direct Physical and Indirect Aggression
Gary Schober, Kaj Bjorkqvist


This pilot study examined the relationship of self – reported direct physical and indirect aggression displayed in the past to the number of times a participant responded aggressively in a computer game known as Mimics (1997).  Aggressive responding in the computer game was defined as the simulated punching of orbs (i.e., computer controlled game characters) with an avatar (i.e., player controlled game character). Hierarchical regression was used to formally test for sex differences, showing that the relationship of aggressive responding in the computer game for males was positively associated with direct physical aggression and negatively associated with indirect aggression. Conversely, aggressive responding for females was found to be positively associated with indirect aggression and no association was found with direct physical aggression. The associations mirror documented findings on sex differences and direct physical and indirect aggression (c.f., Björkqvist, Lagerspetz & Kaukiainen, 1992). Results are discussed within the context of direct and indirect aggression and Fisler’s (2006) theory of the performed player. Full Article

Private Self-Consciousness Factors and Psychological Well-Being
Rick Harrington, Donald A. Loffredo

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the predictive relationship between the two private self-consciousness factors of Self-Reflectiveness (SR) and Internal State Awareness (ISA) from the Self-Consciousness Scale Revised (SCSR) and psychological well-being as measured by the Psychological Well-Being (PWB) inventory. Ninety-seven university students were given the PWB and the SCSR. As hypothesized, the SR factor was generally negatively correlated with PWB and the ISA factor was generally positively correlated with PWB. Stepwise regression results suggest that the positive relationship of ISA to most dimensions of PWB is found only when SR levels are low. However, for personal growth, a key dimension facilitated by successful psychotherapy, high ISA levels are positively related to PWB even when SR levels are high. Full Article

The 4 egos
Thomas Stief

The human self consists of life-ego (Le) and real-ego (Re). The inhuman self consists of iocus-ego (IE) and contra-ego (CE). Le is the primary ego (typical ego of babies). Re is the secondary ego of rational humans, the reason rules being: (1) empathy, (2) modesty, (3) self-protection, (4) thankfulness. IE is the fun-oriented ego. CE is the typical ego of a criminal. Le and Re are supplied by energy, called libido (L!) and dilectio (D!), respectively. CEIE are parasites of ReLe, robbing L! D!, destroying ReLe via pathological destrudo (Z!), which is opposed by the physiological destrudo (N!) of ReLe. Full Article