ISSN 1556-6757







Volume 2, Issue 1, 2008


Bacterial Presence in Manufactured Soils
Maria V. Kalevitch, Valentine I. Kefeli

Manufactured soil, also known as Fabricated Soil (FS), is a natural mixture of decaying substrates rich in aluminosilicate, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium sources (complete composition and quantity cannot be disclosed at this time). This substrate is usually used for landscape rehabilitation, and is an excellent source and example of environmental remediation.
Fabricated soils could be a solution to the problem of soil erosion.  This became a serious issue as all over the world millions of acres of soil are damaged. This study examines the use and application of FS in Western Pennsylvanian soils that were previously degraded by acid mining drainage. We are still trying to determine if fabricated soils are a long-term or short-term solution to the problem. After the exposure of FS into the natural habitat for the duration of three years, we evaluated bacterial activity in soil, as this is an important indicator of soil health.
Full Article

Saline Groundwater Pumping Water Change Water Quality and Management In Dry-Lands: An Experimental and Numerical Assessments   Ahmed Hasson

This involved pumping saline water to shallow ponds, reducing pond evaporation, diluting salt levels with winter rain water and then using this water for irrigation and livestock water supplies. Studies were conducted at two sites in Iraq and in Western Australia. These sites all have a similar climate and share the similar salinity problems. It was found that there was a reduction of 70%, 72% and 82% of the evaporation from the ponds in Iraq and Western Australia respectively. In Upper Euphrates and Babylon the subsequent dilution with winter rainfall changed the water quality from highly saline level to moderately saline, brackish, suitable for irrigation and livestock. Environmental parameters were used to compare the applicability of this technique for the Western Australian wheatbelt. Water pumping were 32% for Upper-Euphrates, 35% for Babylon, and 33% for Moora-Katanning.  Full Article


Manure management on a township scale: Using a land evaluation approach in Wisconsin
Trisha Wagner, Joshua Posner, Laura Paine

In Wisconsin, increased attention to manure management means many farmers will need to look beyond their farm gate in order to correctly manage livestock manure. By integrating easily accessible information at the county level, and with local insight, a series of maps were developed to help land use planners and farmers envision manure management on a landscape rather than single-farm scale. On a township basis, 47% of the area was classified as priority or cautionary for spreading manure, resulting in a stocking rate of approximately 1.07 AU/ha (animal units/manurable hectare). This general discussion about landscape use and nutrient management was very timely as the town and county prepared its 2010 comprehensive "smart growth" development plan.  Full Article

Estimation And Calculation Of A Relationship Between Dispersion Number, Reynolds Number, Porosity And Hydraulic Gradient in Horizontal Roughing Filter

Rabindra Nath Barman, Biswajit Mukhopadhayay, Mrinmoy Majumder, Pankaj Kumar Roy, and

Asis Mazumder

The study was aimed to estimate the flow criteria in Horizontal Roughing Filter (HRF) used as a

pretreatment unit before Slow Sand Filter (SSF). The Head loss and the nature of flow in porous

medium i.e. in gravel bed has been ascertained with overflow rate for the gravel size ranging

between 15mm-10mm, 10mm-5mm, 5mm-1mm. The Dispersion number of the flow through

gravel bed is in between 0.14 to 0.15 which indicate that the flow through gravel bed in HRF acts

as a plug flow type reactor. A relationship among dispersion number, porosity, Reynolds number

and hydraulic gradient for flow through gravel bed has been established, for this study only pond

water of different turbidity was used without any chemical dosing.  Full Article

The Drama of the Commons. An application of Cournot-Nash Model to the Sardine in Portuguese waters. The effects of collusion José Filipe, Manuel Ferreira, Manuel Coelho


This study examines the results of collusion between two Portuguese fishing producers’ organizations (POs), with game theory. The problem is seen from a “commons” perspective, studying sardine stocks. A Cournot-Nash model is used and it evidences the benefits of collusion.  Full Article

A Geospatial Analysis Approach for Assessing the Impact of Land Use on Groundwater Resources in the SanGong Oasis Region  X. Chen, J. F. Yan, Z. Chen, G. P. Luo, W. Q. Xu

In this study, the relationship between land use and land cover change (LUCC) and variation of

groundwater table and quality in the SanGong Oasis Region in the western China is investigated

using a geospatial approach. Specifically, the interactions among groundwater, surface water,

and LUCC are analyzed through the utilization of geographical information system (GIS), remote

sensing (RS) imagery processing, and geostatistics. Study outputs indicate that recharging into

the groundwater in the study area does not change significantly during the period from 1978 to

1998. However, both LUCC and groundwater table have changed substantially in the SanGong

Oasis Region, and their variations are closely correlated to each other spatially and temporally

over the past two decades. This confirms that urbanization and industry are direct reasons for the

decrease in water table and deterioration of groundwater quality. Full Article

Effects of Land Use, Stormwater Management, and Channel Materials on the Channel Morphology of Apple Creek, WI   Jeffrey J. Clark and Jorene Hamilton

Computer modeling has shown that detention ponds, although ubiquitous, are ineffective at preventing channel erosion. To test these results, five reaches of Apple Creek under different land use and stormwater management scenarios were monitored for six years. Results indicate that channels draining developed basins without stormwater management enlarged the most. Channels with stormwater management and comparable levels of development changed very little. These results are contrary to previous field studies, which revealed channel enlargement downstream of detention ponds. The Apple Creek reaches downstream of detention ponds are more cohesive than those without detention ponds, which could explain their relative stability.
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Atmospheric Dust Properties and Its Effect on Light Transmission and Crop-Soil Productivity 

Ahmed Hasson

This study is to determine the effect of atmospheric dust properties on light transmittance,

absorbance and crop yield. The effect of wind erosion on soil carbon and nitrogen stocks is

assessed. The plastic covers transmitted more red light than blue-violet light. Dust accumulation on cover reduces such differences but to a limit extent. The average dust accumulation rate is 4.57 x 10-5 mg/m2/sec, 92.22% dust particles and 7.75% organic materials (0.299 mg/m2/day of organic materials). Dust accumulation over a 22 week period reduced light transmittance by 60%Crop yield was reduced by 33%. Total soil carbon and nitrogen stocks of the upper surface are affected significantly by wind erosion. Soil carbon and nitrogen are at critically low levels because of the wind erosion. Carbon sequestration is needed to improve soil carbon and nitrogen levels.

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Chemical Composition and Physicochemical Properties Of Cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) Oil and Cashew nut Shell Liquid  Akinhanmi, T. F., Atasie, V. N., Akintokun, P. O.

Proximate composition and mineral concentration of Cashew nut (Anarcadium occidentale) were investigated using standard analytical methods. The physicochemical characteristics of cashew nut shell liquid were also determined. The proximate composition (%) was as follows: moisture (7.2), ash (2.8), crude fat (49.1), crude protein (36.3), crude fibre (3.2) and carbohydrate (by difference) (1.4). The mineral composition (mg/100g) of cashew nut showed potassium (27.5 ± 0.4) to be the highest, calcium (21.5 ± 0.0), magnesium (19.3 ±0.1), sodium (8.2 ± 0.2) and phosphorous (14.0 ± 0.2). Zinc and iron concentrations were lower. The physicochemical properties of cashew nut oil were as follows: colour (yellow), refractive index (1.458), specific gravity (0.962), acid value (10.7mgKOH/g), saponification value (137mgKOH/g), iodine value (41.3mgiodine/100g) and free fatty acid (5.4mgKOH/g). This is an indication that the oil is non-drying, edible and may not be used for soap making. The CNSL extracted was dark brown in colour. Ash and moisture content (%) were: 1.2 and 3.9 (for BRZ species), and 1.3 and 6.7 (for AFR species). Specific gravity and refractive index were 0.941 and 1.693 (for BRZ variety), and 0.924 and 1.686 (for AFR variety). Saponification, acid, free fatty acid (mg KOH/g) and iodine (mg iodine/100g) values were (58.1, 12.1, 6.1, 215 respectively (for BRZ species) and 47.6, 15.4, 7.8, 235.(for AFR species). The investigation showed that CNSL is a drying oil and it is useful in industries for paints, varnishes and surface coatings.  Full Article


A Model of Maximization of Rural Household Income and Minimization of Poverty in Africa
Daniel K Song’ony

This study on poverty was analyzed using an econometric model emphasizing the size of agricultural production and the level of prices act as the determinants of the population living below the poverty line. The study outlines the role of international and domestic terms of trade, the size of agricultural production influencing the incidence of poverty in Kenya, and argues the major determinants of Kenyan rural poverty are the size of overall agricultural tradable commodities relative to prices of imports, and the domestic producer price of food and export crops. The study illustrates that given international and domestic prices, technological change in agriculture is fundamental to the achievement of overall agricultural growth as well as the alleviation of poverty and that the pattern of public investments is critical in influencing the rate of technical change. Full Article


Characterization of Foliar-Applied Potash Solution as a Non-selective Herbicide in Malian Agriculture    M.S. Martin, J.H. Westwood, M. N’Diaye, A.R. Goble, D. Mullins, R. Fell, B. Dembélé, K. Gamby

Studies were conducted to evaluate the potential of potash solution as a foliar herbicide with application to Malian agriculture. Potash samples were collected in Mali and analyzed for phytotoxicity and elemental composition. Aqueous potash solutions were applied as foliar sprays to seedlings of six plant species. All species were injured by the treatments, with 90% visual injury to common chickweed at 84.4 kg/ha potash. Broadleaf species showed greater injury in the absence of a surfactant, but addition of methylated soybean oil increased injury to most grass species. In all cases, injury was evident within three hours of treatment and approached maximum levels by 24 hrs. Elemental analysis of the potash showed the major component to be potassium (ranging from 454,300 to 493,310 ppm). Potash is a concentration of salts extracted from ash, and is readily available to Malian farmers as a byproduct of burning wood and crop residues. In light of the increasing interest in natural products, potash has potential to be an inexpensive, naturally-occurring herbicide that can fill needs for nonselective weed control in Malian agriculture. Full Article

Genetic diversity of Mycosphaerella graminicola, the causal agent of Septoria tritici blotch, in Kansas winter wheat

Mehdi Kabbage, John F. Leslie, Kurt A. Zeller, Scot H. Hulbert, William W. Bockus

The genetic structure of Kansas populations of Mycosphaerella graminicola was evaluated at different spatial scales (micro-plot, macro-plot, and statewide) using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Genetic identities among populations were >98%. Tests for population subdivision revealed that 98% of the genetic variability occurred within populations with a corresponding migration rate of 16 to 23 individuals per generation. Little evidence of linkage disequilibrium was observed, on average, only 4.6% of locus pairs were in disequilibrium. These results indicate that Kansas populations of M. graminicola are characterized by regular recombination, are genetically diverse, and appear to be homogenous across different spatial scales.
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