ISSN 1556-6757







Volume 2, Issue 1, 2008

Influences and Challenges of Male Gender Construct
Larry Barnes


Adolescent males face a variety of challenges and influences regarding male identity. Environments and activities that suppress the testing of various roles complicate negotiating conflicting messages about what it means to be a man. Positive and negative influences on male construct identified by current research are discussed. Specifically, influences of peer groups, leisure activities, and the classroom are examined. The experimental process of identity construct for males is identified. Challenges to role experimentation are recognized and a theory of diverse experience is established as guidance for caregivers in helping adolescent males through the identity crisis. Full Article


Changes in dance teachers’ beliefs about critical-thinking activities

Edward C. Warburton


Experienced, early career, and prospective dance teachers and non-teacher controls (N

= 167) participated in a study examining the development of beliefs about use of criticalthinking

(CT) activities with different learner populations. Dance teachers’ self-selection of

careers was associated with support for high-CT for high-advantage learners. Preservice

education was associated with more absolute beliefs in both the inherent advantages of

high functioning learners and the use of high-CT activities for all learners. Teaching

experience was associated with a moderation of support for high-CT instruction for all

learners – with clear preferences for high-advantage students – and reduced support for

low-CT instruction for high-advantage learners. For teacher educators who advocate

strongly for use of CT in dance and physical education, the results suggest a need for

research and development of preservice practices that promote optimal use of CT

activities for all learners. Full Article


Humor in the Home and in the Classroom: The Benefits of Laughing While We Learn
Michael G. Lovorn

Research shows that social and intellectual development among preadolescent children can be

enhanced and enriched when the children are exposed to the regular, structured, appropriate use of humor by parents and teachers. Authority figures such as parents and teachers can use wit and humor to edify familial and/or educational relationships and encourage academic excellence by helping lay foundations for effective learning connections with children before they enter adolescence. This article explores the value and benefits of humor as a teaching tool at home and in the classroom and addresses appropriate and inappropriate uses of humor in these environments. In doing so, the author focuses on the socially significant development of sense of humor from shortly after birth through early adulthood. The author discusses the latest research in this relatively new field of study, and presents examples and resources for the use of humor with children of this age group. Full Article


Validation of the Physical Self-Perception Profile among College Students

Konstantinos Karteroliotis


The Physical Self-Perception Profile (PSPP) is widely used to measure self-evaluations in the

physical domain and its validity has been supported in a wide range of samples. The purpose of

this research was to examine the factor structure of PSPP and its factorial invariance across

gender. Participants were 315 (131 males, 184 females) college students. Exploratory factor

analyses showed that PSPP assessed four distinct aspects of physical self-concept. However,

confirmatory factor analyses provided only partial support for the male sample. Finally, factorial

invariance analysis indicated that there were differences on the latent constructs of PSPP

between males and females. Full Article


Controlling the number of teaching hours in online writing courses
Robert Lankamp

Dozens of studies in mainly American professional journals have reported unforeseen problems with online writing courses. One often reported difficulty is that online writing courses tend to require far more teaching time than their face-to-face counterparts. This paper offers a detailed overview of the ways in which online courses take up so much teaching time. It is proposed that much of that excess time is taken up with activities which are not related to teaching, and that the root cause of the problem is a perception that online courses are not so different from face-to-face courses.  Full Article


Music Education Conference Trends: A Content Analysis of State In-Service Sessions
Mark T. Kiehn  and Steven E. Kimball

The 442 sessions of the 2004-2007 Wisconsin Music Educators Association State Annual In-Service Conferences were classified according to category, which included educational sessions, concert performances, business meetings, receptions, concert clinics, and general sessions. They also were grouped according to subject areas, including general music, performance-centered sessions, research, multiculturalism, technology, inclusion, and industry-centered sessions. The largest proportionate category means of total sessions was educational (66%) and concert performance sessions (22%), followed by teacher education (M= 40%), performance-centered (M= 33%), and industry-centered (M= 29%) subject areas within the educational category. In contrast to literature trends, industry-centered (19%) and technology sessions (4%) comprised less proportionately, while performance sessions dominated. A continuation of trends in decreasing research sessions and concert performances was found. General music and multicultural music sessions represented 15% and 6% respectively of all sessions. A single session on teaching special learners in the music classroom resulted in the inclusion category forming 0.2% of total conference offerings.  Full Article


What Will Make Primary Educators Use LORs: A Better Interface or More Free Time?
Loreen Powell and Carl J. Chimi

Learning object repositories (LORs) have the potential to improve education at the primary school level. However, for various reasons, primary educators are not effectively using LORs. Two of the most common reasons are interface design and time. The goal of this research was to learn more about what will make primary educators use LORs: a better interface or more free time. Data were collected from 37 participants divided into two groups (control and experimental). Data were assessed for significance using Multivariate Analysis of Variance, resulting in a significant main effect indicating that primary educators need additional time more than a better interface.  Full Article

"Did they Say What I think They Said?” A Multicultural Response Framework to Address Racial Comments in the Classroom   Sheri A. Atwater

This article discusses the difficulties inherent in addressing racial issues with students, and acknowledges the learning curve that must take place if teachers are to feel prepared and competent handling racist, stereotyped, or prejudiced comments in the classroom. The author proposes a Multicultural Response Framework of Racial/Cultural Discourse to serve as a framework for teacher reflection and development as they respond to students' questions and comments about race. Findings from a pilot study are presented to illustrate how the framework can be used to classify teacher responses to hypothetical racial vignettes. Implications for psychologists and educators are discussed. Full Article


Modeling Minority Opportunity Programs: Key Interventions and Success Indicators
Simeon P. Slovacek, Susan Tucker, Jonathan Whittinghill

MORE R.E.S.U.L.T.S. (Minority Opportunities in Research; Research and Evaluation of Students Using Long-Term Studies) is a multi-institutional research study to assess the effectiveness of diverse interventions in Minority Opportunities in Research (MORE) programs at three universities. These programs increase interest, motivation, and preparedness for careers in biomedical research among underrepresented minority students. This paper presents research on the efficacy of MORE academic interventions. Aggregated data across three MORE institutions enhances the ability to understand multiple academic interventions. These results have the potential of impacting program design and execution at the institutional, national, and international level.  Full Article

Cooperating Teachers’ Impressions of the Whisper-In-My-Ear (WIME) and Traditional Communication Feedback Methods for Physical Education Pre-Service Teachers 
Anne C. Farrell and Daniel Chandler

Cooperating teachers (CT) were asked to use two different feedback techniques while mentoring pre-service teachers (PST) during an initial field experience. One PST received intra-lesson feedback from a two-way radio and ear-bud device, known as the Whisper-In-My-Ear (WIME) method, while the second PST received feedback in the traditional observation/written/verbal follow-up method (TM). CTs impressions and effectiveness of the feedback methods were evaluated to determine if one method was superior to the other. Overall, CTs indicated that the WIME method had several advantages: connection with their K-5 classes, a greater connection with the PST, ability to keep the lesson moving forward, and a faster progression for the PST. However, regardless of the feedback method, most PSTs ended the field experience demonstrating similar teaching competencies. Full Article



Beauty in the Classroom: Are Female Students Influenced by the Physical Appearance
of Their Male Professors? 
Ya’arit Bokek-Cohen and Nitza Davidowitz


Students were asked to rate the physical attractiveness of fifty five professors and these data
were correlated with teaching ratings as collected in the previous semester. Male professors
considered more attractive received higher teaching ratings, but only from female students.
The more attractive female professors did not receive higher ratings from either male or
female students. We conclude that male academics enjoy a “beauty premium,” while their
female colleagues do not. This “discrimination” stems from the contradiction between role
images and gender images. When the role image corresponds to the gender image, the
“beauty effect” benefits attractive people. When there is a contradiction between these two
images, however, the beautiful person does not enjoy the “beauty premium.”
Full Article

Lack of Adult Male Role Models in Secondary Schools of Armenia and Its Impact on Armenian Male Teenagers’ Conceptualizations of Masculinities   Mariam Martirosyan

This project addresses the probable influence of adult male under-representation in secondary schools of the Republic of Armenia with reference to its possible effects on the development of male teenagers’ perceptions on gender roles and associated values, specifically related to the construct of masculinity. It links the emergence of asocial behavior and negative crime statistics among Armenian male juveniles with international research findings regarding the impacts of feminized schools on male juveniles.
Full Article


An Introduction to the Lasallian Philosophy of Education
Voltaire Mallari Mistades

A paradigm that describes the Lasallian philosophy of education is presented, together with a
discussion of the components of the paradigm. The article expounds on the Lasallian Shared Mission of providing “a human and Christian education to the young, especially the poor”. The elements of Lasallian spirituality – faith, zeal, and community – are presented from the perspective of the Founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, John Baptist de La Salle. The article articulates how contemporary Lasallians could embody this spirituality in daily life. Finally, the article describes the image of a teacher as culled from the writings of the Patron of Teachers, St. John Baptist de La Salle. Full Article


University and School District Grant Collaboration: How to Avoid a Logistical Nightmare
Debra Cook-Hirai and Emilio Garza


The article describes how to better establish collaboration between a university and school districts. The article expresses the experiences the authors had with initiating and implementing a staff development research grant with a high school district. Research is presented that supports the collaboration process. Discussion on the issues is addressed and some recommendations are given to anyone doing this type of grant collaboration with a school district. The recommendations are based on the authors’ professional and personal experience in implementing the grant. Full Article