ISSN 1556-6757







Volume 3, Issue 1, 2009


Perceptions and Value of Off-line Retailers’ Interactivity
Bela Florenthal



Researchers repeatedly suggest that interactivity is a characteristic of the Internet. This paper examines whether consumers perceive off-line retailers to be as interactive or even more interactive than the on-line retailers on three dimensions: message contingency, real-time communication and control. Two studies (in-depth interviews and a survey) reveal that when comparing interactivity of web stores with physical stores and catalogues, consumers perceive physical stores and catalogues to be as interactive as web stores on two out of three interactivity dimensions. In addition, the paper shows that consumers value the interactive characteristics of off-line retailers as much as they value the interactive characteristics of on-line retailers. The implications of these findings are discussed.  Full Article


How California Creates Greater Income Inequality for Itself

Steven J. Balassi


A prior study shows that U.S. fiscal policy accounts for 69% of California's income inequality. This

study examines what is different in California to explain the remaining 31%. The first part of this

study examines the variables which are different in California compared to the rest of the U.S.

The major variables which are examined are immigration, education, and health care. They help

explain the 31% difference which the U.S. fiscal policy does not account for. The second part of

this study reports the results of multiple regression tests with the new variables to strengthen the

prior correlation of 69%.  Full Article


Tradable Hospital Admissions Permits: Creating a Market for the Medically Indigent
Andrew J. Buck and Michael Peng


As a matter of social contract, American society provides health care to the medically indigent. Two problems arise: First, the rate at which care is reimbursed is government determined minimal regard to the market place. Second, the liability of providing hospital care for the indigent is not shared equally by all hospitals. This leads to some socially undesirable consequences, such as the closure of hospitals in poor areas. This paper proposes tradable admissions permits as a method for restoring the 'missing market' for care for the poor. Unlike the prospective payments system, admissions permits can achieve both efficiency and equity.

Full Article


Fraud Detection: The Moderating Role of Fraud Risk Level
Nahariah Jaffar



This study aims to examine the moderating effect of the contextual fraud risk level on the relationship between the external auditors‟ ability to assess fraud risk and their ability to detect the likelihood of fraud. This study uses an experimental approach by sending case materials to audit partners or audit managers attached to auditing firms operating in Malaysia. The result shows that the contextual of fraud risk level has a significant effect on the relationship between the external auditors‟ ability to assess fraud risk and their ability to detect the likelihood of fraud.

Full Article