Weight Preoccupation, Body Image Dissatisfaction, and Self-Efficacy in
Stephanie A. Valutis, Anthony J. Goreczny, Leena Abdullah, Emily Magee,
Joseph A. Wister
Previous research has shown a relationship between body dissatisfaction
and weight preoccupation. Body image is complex and multidimensional,
and there may be mediating factors present in studies of body
dissatisfaction and weight preoccupation. This study assessed the
relationships between self-efficacy, body dissatisfaction, and weight
preoccupation in young adult college females. Results indicate that
self-efficacy with respect to body image, eating behavior, and weight
are all predictors of weight preoccupation. These findings suggest that
self-efficacy has a place in weight preoccupation and both researchers
and clinicians need to take these relationships into account when
working toward prevention, assessment, and intervention.
Right-left orientation and spatial abilities in patients with right and
left hemispheric lesions
and controls Oliver Hirsch, Ruth Gesewsky, Katrin Schlötterer,
Roland Ferlings, Bernd Röhrle
This study examines whether deficits in right-left orientation (rlo)
exist on a larger scale in patients with right or left hemispheric brain
injury compared to healthy controls, and also explores the connections
between rlo and spatial abilities.
A matched groups design was
adopted to examine differences in the applied measures. Methods and
Procedures A new measure of rlo was applied. Further tests were used
covering visual memory, mental rotation, handedness, and visuo-construction.
69 healthy controls and 82 patients suffering from right
(n=51) or left (n=31) hemispheric brain lesions were examined and tested
individually during one hour periods.
There were no
significant differences in the performance of the rlo task. A
significant difference was found in the visuo-constructive task between
both patient groups and the controls. Patients with left hemispheric
lesions scored lower than the controls in mental rotation. The
prevalence of massive deficits in rlo was twice as high in the combined
patient groups than in the controls.
lateralization of rlo and spatial abilities were not supported. The
groups did show differing patterns of intercorrelations. This gave rise
to the idea of different compensatory strategies for solving spatial
tasks resulting in comparable outcomes which was not confirmed in
Ego State Differences in University Students by Gender, Race, and
Donald A. Loffredo and Rick Harrington
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate
transactional analysis ego state differences in gender, race and college
major for university students. Three hundred students completed the Ego
State Questionnaire-Revised (ESQ-R) voluntarily online. A three-way
(gender by race by college major) independent-measures multivariate
analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that females scored significantly
higher than males on the Nurturing Parent (NP) ego state. Results of the
study did not support the hypothesis that there might be racial group
differences in ego states.
Relationships among Coping, Weight Preoccupation, and Body Image in
Stephanie A. Valutis,
Anthony J. Goreczny, Joseph A. Wister, Holly Newton, Stephanie Popp and
preoccupation is a significant predictor of eating disordered behavior.
Previous research has shown that coping style and body mass index relate
to weight preoccupation. A significant limitation of previous studies
was exclusion of body image, also a predictor of disordered eating.
Purpose of this study was to investigate influence of coping style and
body image on weight preoccupation in young adult college females.
Results indicate body image dissatisfaction is a stronger predictor of
weight preoccupation than is coping style. Implications of this study
suggest that therapeutic interventions need to focus on self-efficacy
and dissonance in addition to coping strategies.
Helping College Students Cope: Identifying Predictors of Active Coping
in Different Stressful Situations
may encounter stressful situations related to relationships, work, and
academia. The tendency to actively cope (active coping) plays a
significant role in the process of adapting to stressful situations.
This study explored predictors of active coping in three situations.
Participants were 219 Taiwanese college students (192 females and 27
males). The most effective predictor of active coping in
relationship-related situations and work-related situations were
resilience and secure attachment, respectively. No effective predictor of active coping was
identified in the academic-related stressful situations. The article
ends by offering implications of this study’s findings.